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Old 11-26-2008, 02:26 AM
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Default TS Parameters and their meanings

Thiele/Small-Parameters section

Qes
Electrical Q (=damping), lower value means higher damping. It describes a drivers ability to resonate at fs based on electrical means.

Qms
Mechanical Q (=damping, lower value means higher damping). It describes a drivers ability to resonate at fs based on mechanical means.

Qts
Total damping (parallel coupling of Qms and Qes).

Vas
Equivalent Volume of air to Cms.

Fs
Free air resonance frequency of driver.


Electro-Mechanical parameter section

Mms
Mechanical Mass of the vibrating part of the driver including air load.

Cms
Compliance of driver (inverse of spring stiffness).

Rms
Mechanical damping, gives you the mechanical damping of the diaphragm arising from mechanical friction, including the resistive part of the radiation load. Rms can be compared to Rme, and Rms is similarly related to Qms. Larger Qms gives smaller Rms. For woofers this is normally desired because the suspension then operates closer to a perfect spring.

Re
DC-resistance of voice coil.

BL
Magnetic Induction crossed with wire length in the airgap. (crossing = cross product, a mathematical vector-operation).

Dd
Diameter of Diaphragm.

Le
Voice coil inductance.

Sd
Surface-area of Diaphragm.

fLe
The frequency at which Le and KLe is to be determined.

KLe
Voice coil semi-inductance in [H·sqrt(Hz)], after Vanderkooy.


Large-Signal Parameter section

Xmax
Max linear excursion, usually calculated as abs(Hc-Hg)/2, and sometimes multiplied by a factor (1.15 or 0.87, depending on how much distortion is accepted). Some manufacturers erroneously gives you Xmax as the damage limit, see Xlim.

Xlim
Damage limit excursion, also a peak value.

Hc
Height of coil.

Hg
Height of airgap.

Vd
Volume Displacement, how much air the driver can move in its linear range.

Pe
Thermal limited max. continuous electric power handling. If a driver is driven continuously above Pe, then it will eventually fail.


Miscellaneous parameters section

no
Efficiency (n should be the greek letter "eta") in percent [%].

Znom
Nominal impedance of the driver (not used in simulation).

USPL
efficiency in deciBell (SPL = sound pressure level) in [dB/2.83V] dB per 2.83 Volt (similar to 1W into an 8 ohm load). This SPL-measurement is similar to SPL (see above), but gives different values. This shows you the difficulties about matching drivers. With 8 ohm drivers 2.83 Volt gives you 1 Watt and the two figures (SPL and USPL) will be similar, but at lower impedance levels the USPL level will increase. USPL is the socalled voltage sensitivity and is closer to application with voltage amplifiers. To a limited extent you could match drivers for a loudspeaker system with this factor.

SPL
Efficiency in deciBell (SPL = sound pressure level) in [dB] per Watt directly related to no, but definately not an "accurate" figure in applications. In other words, if a speaker driver is specified by the manufacturer to some other value, do not use that value for WinISD unless you need it to calculate some Thiele-Small parameters and approximate values are better than no values at all. WinISD assumes distance 1 meter, radiation into halfspace (2*pi), and voltage driv. SPL is the so-called power-sensitivity, not really related to application, normally voltage amplifiers are used, but can become relevant if you want to compare two similar drivers with different nominal impedance levels.

Voicecoils
Voicecoils is a descriptive parameter. It just tells how many voicecoils there are. So ordinary drivers have 1, DVC drivers have 2 etc.


Thermal Parameters Section

AlfaVC
AlfaVC is resistance temperature coefficient of voice coil material. It tells what is relative change of voice coil resistance per unit of temperature. Expressed in 1/K. Normally, copper has AlfaVC of about 0.0039 1/K at +20 °C.

R(t)
R(t) is thermal resistance of driver from voice coil to ambient box air in Kelvins/Watt (K/W). This is not used yet in simulations.

C(t)
C(t) is thermal capacity of driver voice coil assembly in Joules/Kelvin. This is not used yet in simulations.


figure of merits" parameters section

SPLmaxLF
SPLmaxLF gives how loud driver can play in closed box or infinite baffle into half-space at maximum excursion at 20 Hz. Distance from this imaginary baffle is 1 meter. It gives "feeling" on Vd. Note also, that it doesn't apply to vented or any other assisted enclosure.

SPLmax
Maximum thermal limited SPL in [dB] (at maximum Pe, assuming power compression = 3 dB) playing into 2pi space.

Rme
Electromagnetic Damping Factor in [N·s/m] (the unit for viscosity), gives you the mechanical control/damping of the diaphragm arising from the electro-magnetic motor system. Rme is related to Qes in a way similar to how Rms is related to Qms. Rme is often used as a measure for power of the magnetic motor system, see Mpow and Mcost.

Gamma
The acceleration factor (acceleration per ampere) in [m/(s²·A)].

Mpow
Motor power-factor in Newton per square-root Watt [N/sqrt(W)]. Similar to Mcost. I have seen Rme as a measure of motor power, but this is simply the square-root of Rme, and it provides a simple measure in Newton, which I (Claus Futtrup) prefer, and which seems to relate the actual (subjectively perceived) power in a linear way. The square-root Watt unit can be difficult to understand, but should be interpreted as square-root of Volt * Ampere. In this respect it becomes clear that Mpow is independent of the drivers impedance level, and therefore does not prioritize high or low impedance drivers. Mpow is purely a motor system power-factor.

Mcost
Motor cost-factor in [N·s/m] (or [kg/s]). Mcost expresses how powerful the motor system is (based on Rme, Xmax and either Hc or Hg depending on whether the voice coil is overhung or underhung), and the Xmax value includes an indicator of how much efficiency is "lost" in the design. This factor is therefore a description of how expensive the motor system is. This is an indicator on the price of the driver, but please forget about the unit. Other factors comes in, like diaphragm material, manufacturing tolerances etc. This version of Mcost (instead of using Rme) is based on an extension suggested by T. L. Clarke, where the cost of getting a high Bl at low impedance must be even higher when the driver is significantly overhung or underhung.

EBP
Efficiency-Bandwidth-Product in [Hz]
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  #2  
Old 11-26-2008, 02:48 AM
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Default

B
Magnetic flux density in gap, in Tesla-meters (TM)
BL
The magnetic strength of the motor structure. "Expressed in Tesla meters, this is a measurement of the motor strength of a speaker. Think of this as how good a weightlifter the transducer is. A measured mass is applied to the cone forcing it back while the current required for the motor to force the mass back is measured. The formula is mass in grams divided by the current in amperes. A high BL figure indicates a very strong transducer that moves the cone with authority!"
C
Propagation velocity of sound at STP, approx. 342 m/s
Cas
Acoustical equivalent of Cms
Cmes
The electrical capacitive equivalent of Mms, in farads
Cms
The driver's mechanical compliance (reciprocal of stiffness), in m/N
D
Effective diameter of driver, in meters
F3
-3 dB cutoff frequency, in Hz
Fb
Enclosure resonance (usually for bass reflex systems), in Hz
Fc
System resonance (usually for sealed box systems), in Hz
Fs
Driver free air resonance, in Hz. This is the point at which driver impedance is maximum. "This parameter is the free-air resonant frequency of a speaker. Simply stated, it is the point at which the weight of the moving parts of the speaker becomes balanced with the force of the speaker suspension when in motion. If you've ever seen a piece of string start humming uncontrollably in the wind, you have seen the effect of reaching a resonant frequency. It is important to know this information so that you can prevent your enclosure from 'ringing'. With a loudspeaker, the mass of the moving parts, and the stiffness of the suspension (surround and spider) are the key elements that affect the resonant frequency. As a general rule of thumb, a lower Fs indicates a woofer that would be better for low-frequency reproduction than a woofer with a higher Fs. This is not always the case though, because other parameters affect the ultimate performance as well."
L
Length of wire immersed in magnetic field, in meters
Lces
The electrical inductive equivalent of Cms, in henries
Le
"This is the voice coil inductance measured in millihenries (mH). The industry standard is to measure inductance at 1,000 Hz. As frequencies get higher there will be a rise in impedance above Re. This is because the voice coil is acting as an inductor. Consequently, the impedance of a speaker is not a fixed resistance, but can be represented as a curve that changes as the input frequency changes. Maximum impedance (Zmax) occurs at Fs. "
Ms
The total moving mass of the loudspeaker cone.
Mmd
Diaphram mass, in grams
Mms
The driver's effective mechanical mass (including air load), in kg. "This parameter is the combination of the weight of the cone assembly plus the ‘driver radiation mass load’. The weight of the cone assembly is easy: it’s just the sum of the weight of the cone assembly components. The driver radiation mass load is the confusing part. In simple terminology, it is the weight of the air (the amount calculated in Vd) that the cone will have to push."
n0
The reference efficiency of the system (eta sub 0) dimensionless, usually expressed as %
p
(rho) Density of air at STP 1.18 kg/m^3
Pa
Acoustical power
Pe
Electrical power
Q
The relative damping of a loudspeaker
Q Parameters
"Qms, Qes, and Qts are measurements related to the control of a transducer's suspension when it reaches the resonant frequency (Fs). The suspension must prevent any lateral motion that might allow the voice coil and pole to touch (this would destroy the loudspeaker). The suspension must also act like a shock absorber. Qms is a measurement of the control coming from the speaker's mechanical suspension system (the surround and spider). View these components like springs. Qes is a measurement of the control coming from the speaker's electrical suspension system (the voice coil and magnet). Opposing forces from the mechanical and electrical suspensions act to absorb shock. Qts is called the 'Total Q' of the driver and is derived from an equation where Qes is multiplied by Qms and the result is divided by the sum of the same.

As a general guideline, Qts of 0.4 or below indicates a transducer well suited to a vented enclosure. Qts between 0.4 and 0.7 indicates suitability for a sealed enclosure. Qts of 0.7 or above indicates suitability for free-air or infinite baffle applications. However, there are exceptions! The Eminence Kilomax 18 has a Qts of 0.56. This suggests a sealed enclosure, but in reality it works extremely well in a ported enclosure. Please consider all the parameters when selecting loudspeakers. If you are in any doubt, contact your Eminence representative for technical assistance."

Qa
The system's Q at Fb, due to absorption losses; dimensionless
Qec
The system's Q at resonance (Fc), due to electrical losses; dimensionless
Qes
The driver's Q at resonance (Fs), due to electrical losses; dimensionless. "A measurement of the control coming from the speaker's electrical suspension system (the voice coil and magnet). Opposing forces from the mechanical and electrical suspensions act to absorb shock."
Ql
The system's Q at Fb, due to leakage losses; dimensionless
Qmc
The system's Q at resonance (Fc), due to mechanical losses; dimensionless
Qms
The driver's Q at resonance (Fs), due to mechanical losses; dimensionless. "A measurement of the control coming from the speaker's mechanical suspension system (the surround and spider). View these components like springs."
Qp
The system's Q at Fb, due to port losses (turbulence, viscousity, etc.); dimensionless
Qtc
The system's Q at resonance (Fc), due to all losses; dimensionless
Qts
The driver's Q at resonance (Fs), due to all losses; dimensionless. "The 'Total Q' of the driver and is derived from an equation where Qes is multiplied by Qms and the result is divided by the sum of the same."
R
Ripple, in dB
Re
"This is the DC resistance of the driver measured with an ohm meter and it is often referred to as the 'DCR'. This measurement will almost always be less than the driver's nominal impedance. Consumers sometimes get concerned the Re is less than the published impedance and fear that amplifiers will be overloaded. Due to the fact that the inductance of a speaker rises with a rise in frequency, it is unlikely that the amplifier will often see the DC resistance as its load."
Ras
Acoustical equivalent of Rms
Res
The electrical resistive equivalent of Rms, in ohms
Rms
"This parameter represents the mechanical resistance of a driver’s suspension losses. It is a measurement of the absorption qualities of the speaker suspension and is stated in N*sec/m."
Revc
DC voice coil resistance, in ohms
Rg
Amplifier source resistance (includes leads, crossover, etc.), in ohms
Rms
The driver's mechanical losses, in kg/s
Sd
Effective piston radiating area of driver, in square centimeters. "This is the actual surface area of the cone, normally given in square cm."
SPLo
Sound Pressure Level, usually measured at 1 watt, at 1 meter in front of the loudspeaker
Vas/Cms
"Equivalent volume of compliance", this is a volume of air whose compliance is the same as a driver's acoustical compliance Cms (q.v.), in cubic meters. "Vas represents the volume of air that when compressed to one cubic meter exerts the same force as the compliance (Cms) of the suspension in a particular speaker. Vas is one of the trickiest parameters to measure because air pressure changes relative to humidity and temperature — a precisely controlled lab environment is essential. Cms is measured in meters per Newton. Cms is the force exerted by the mechanical suspension of the speaker. It is simply a measurement of its stiffness. Considering stiffness (Cms), in conjunction with the Q parameters gives rise to the kind of subjective decisions made by car manufacturers when tuning cars between comfort to carry the president and precision to go racing. Think of the peaks and valleys of audio signals like a road surface then consider that the ideal speaker suspension is like car suspension that can traverse the rockiest terrain with race-car precision and sensitivity at the speed of a fighter plane. It’s quite a challenge because focusing on any one discipline tends to have a detrimental effect on the others. "
Vd
Maximum linear volume of displacement of the driver (product of Sd times Xmax), in cubic meters. "This parameter is the Peak Diaphragm Displacement Volume — in other words the volume of air the cone will move. It is calculated by multipying Xmax (Voice Coil Overhang of the driver) by Sd (Surface area of the cone). Vd is noted in cc. The highest Vd figure is desirable for a sub-bass transducer."
Xmax/Xmech
Maximum peak linear excursion of driver, in meters. "Short for Maximum Linear Excursion. Speaker output becomes non-linear when the voice coil begins to leave the magnetic gap. Although suspensions can create non-linearity in output, the point at which the number of turns in the gap (see BL) begins to decrease is when distortion starts to increase. Eminence has historically been very conservative with this measurement and indicated only the voice coil overhang (Xmax: Voice coil height minus top plate thickness, divided by 2). Xmech is expressed by Eminence as the lowest of four potential failure condition measurements times 2: Spider crashing on top plate; Voice coil bottoming on back plate; Voice coil coming out of gap above core; Physical limitation of cone. Take the lowest of these measurements then multiply it by two. This gives a distance that describes the maximum mechanical movement of the cone."
Zmax
"This parameter represents the speaker’s impedance at resonance."
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